【中英文】土木工程概述Civil Engineering

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土木工程 Civil Engineering

Civil engineering, the oldest of the engineering specialties, is the planning, design, construction, and management of the built environment. This environment includes all structures built according to scientific principles, from irrigation and drainage systems to rocket-launching facilities.

土木工程学作为最老的工程技术学科,是指规划,设计,施工及对建筑环境的管理。此处的环境包括建筑符合科学规范的所有结构,从灌溉和排水系统到火箭发射设施。

Civil engineers build roads, bridges, tunnels, dams, harbors, power plants, water and sewage systems, hospitals, schools, mass transit, and other public facilities essential to modern society and large population concentrations. They also build privately owned facilities such as airports, railroads, pipelines, skyscrapers, and other large structures designed for industrial, commercial, or residential use. In addition, civil engineers plan, design, and build complete cities and towns, and more recently have been planning and designing space platforms to house self-contained communities.

土木工程师建造道路,桥梁,管道,大坝,海港,发电厂,给排水系统,医院,学校,公共交通和其他现代社会和大量人口集中地区的基础公共设施。他们也建造私有设施,比如飞机场,铁路,管线,摩天大楼,以及其他设计用作工业,商业和住宅途径的大型结构。此外,土木工程师还规划设计及建造完整的城市和乡镇,并且最近一直在规划设计容纳设施齐全的社区的空间平台。

The word civil derives from the Latin for citizen. In 1782, Englishman John Smeaton used the term to differentiate his nonmilitary engineering work from that of the military engineers who predominated at the time. Since then, the term civil engineering has often been used to refer to engineers who build public facilities, although the field is much broader

土木一词来源于拉丁文词“公民”。在1782年,英国人John Smeaton为了把他的非军事工程工作区别于当时占优势地位的军事工程师的工作而采用的名词。自从那时起,土木工程学被用于提及从事公共设施建设的工程师,尽管其包含的领域更为广阔。

Scope. Because it is so broad, civil engineering is subdivided into a number of technical specialties. Depending on the type of project, the skills of many kinds of civil engineer specialists may be needed. When a project begins, the site is surveyed and mapped by civil engineers who locate utility placement—water, sewer, and power lines. Geotechnical specialists perform soil experiments to determine if the earth can bear the weight of the project. Environmental specialists study the project’s impact on the local area: the potential for air and groundwater pollution, the project’s impact on local animal and plant life, and how the project can be designed to meet government requirements aimed at protecting the environment.  Transportation specialists determine what kind of facilities are needed to ease the burden on local roads and other transportation networks that will result from the completed project. Meanwhile, structural specialists use preliminary data to make detailed designs, plans, and specifications for the project. Supervising and coordinating the work of these civil engineer specialists, from beginning to end of the project, are the construction management specialists. Based on information supplies by the other specialists, construction management civil engineers estimate quantities and costs of materials and labor, schedule all work, order materials and equipment for the job, hire contractors and subcontractors, and perform other supervisory work to ensure the project is completed on time and as specified.

领域。因为包含范围太广,土木工程学又被细分为大量的技术专业。不同类型的工程需要多种不同土木工程专业技术。一个项目开始的时候,土木工程师要对场地进行测绘,定位有用的布置,如地下水水位,下水道,和电力线。岩土工程专家则进行土力学试验以确定土壤能否承受工程荷载。环境工程专家研究工程对当地的影响,包括对空气和地下水的可能污染,对当地动植物生活的影响,以及如何让工程设计满足政府针对环境保护的需要。交通工程专家确定必需的不同种类设施以减轻由整个工程造成的对当地公路和其他交通网络的负担。同时,结构工程专家利用初步数据对工程作详细规划,设计和说明。从项目开始到结束,对这些土木工程专家的工作进行监督和调配的则是施工管理专家。根据其他专家所提供的信息,施工管理专家计算材料和人工的数量和花费,所有工作的进度表,订购工作所需要的材料和设备,雇佣承包商和分包商,还要做些额外的监督工作以确保工程能按时按质完成。

Throughout any given project, civil engineers make extensive use of computers. Computers are used to design the project’s various elements (computer-aided design, or CAD) and to manage it. Computers are necessity for the modern civil engineer because they permit the engineer to efficiently handle the large quantities of data needed in determining the best way to construct a project.

贯穿任何给定项目,土木工程师都需要大量使用计算机。计算机用于设计工程中使用的多数元件(即计算机辅助设计,或者CAD)并对其进行管理。计算机成为了现代土木工程师的必备品,因为它使得工程师能有效地掌控所需的大量数据从而确定建造一项工程的最佳方法。

Structural engineering. In this specialty, civil engineers plan and design structures of all types, including bridge, dams, power plants, supports for equipment, special structures for offshore projects, the United States space program, transmission towers, giant astronomical and radio telescopes, and many other kinds of projects. Using computers, structural engineers determine the forces a structure must resist: its own weight, wind and hurricane forces, temperature changes that expand or contract construction materials, and earthquakes. They also determine the combination of appropriate materials: steel, concrete, plastic, asphalt, brick, aluminum, or other construction materials.

结构工程学。在这一专业领域,土木工程师规划设计各种类型的结构,包括桥梁,大坝,发电厂,设备支撑,海面上的特殊结构,美国太空计划,发射塔,庞大的天文和无线电望远镜,以及许多其他种类的项目。结构工程师应用计算机确定一个结构必须承受的力:自重,风荷载和飓风荷载,建筑材料温度变化引起的胀缩,以及地震荷载。他们也需确定不同种材料如钢筋,混凝土,塑料,石头,沥青,砖,铝或其他建筑材料等的复合作用。

Water resources engineering.  Civil engineers in this specialty deal with all aspects of the physical control of water. Their projects help prevent floods, supply water for cities and for irrigation, manage and control rivers and water runoff, and maintain beaches and other waterfront facilities. In addition, they design and maintain harbors, canals, and locks, build huge hydroelectric dams and smaller dams and water impoundments of all kinds, help design offshore structures, and determine the location of structures affecting navigation.

水利工程学。土木工程师在这一领域主要处理水的物理控制方面的种种问题。他们的项目用于帮助预防洪水灾害,提供城市用水和灌溉用水,管理控制河流和水流物,维护河滩及其他滨水设施。此外,他们设计和维护海港,运河与水闸,建造大型水利大坝与小型坝,以及各种类型的围堰,帮助设计海上结构并且确定结构的位置对航行影响。

Geotechnical engineering.  Civil engineers who specialize in this field analyze the properties of soils and rocks that support structures and affect structural behavior. They evaluate and work to minimize the potential settlement of buildings and other structures that stems from the pressure of their weight on the earth. These engineers also evaluate and determine how to strengthen the stability of slopes and fills and how to protect structures against earthquakes and the effects of groundwater.

岩土工程学。专业于这个领域的土木工程师对支撑结构并影响结构行为的土壤和岩石的特性进行分析。他们计算建筑和其他结构由于自重压力可能引起的沉降,并采取措施使之减少到最小。他们也需计算并确定如何加强斜坡和填充物的稳定性以及如何保护结构免受地震和地下水的影响。

Environmental engineering. In this branch of engineering, civil engineers design, build and supervise systems to provide safe drinking water and to prevent and control pollution of water supplies, both on the surface and underground. They also design, build, and supervise projects to control or eliminate pollution of the land and air. These engineers build water and wastewater treatment plants, and design air scrubbers and other devices to minimize or eliminate air pollution caused by industrial processes, incineration, or other smoke-producing activities. They also work to control toxic and hazardous wastes through the construction of special dump sites or the neutralizing of toxic and hazardous substances. In addition, the engineers design and manage sanitary landfills to prevent pollution of surrounding land.

环境工程学。在这一工程学分支中,土木工程师设计,建造并监视系统以提供安全的饮用水,同时预防和控制地表和地下水资源供给的污染。他们也设计,建造并监视工程以控制甚至消除对土地和空气的污染。他们建造供水和废水处理厂,设计空气净化器和其他设备以最小化甚至消除由工业加工、焚化及其他产烟生产活动引起的空气污染。他们也采用建造特殊倾倒地点或使用有毒有害物中和剂的措施来控制有毒有害废弃物。此外,工程师还对垃圾掩埋进行设计和管理以预防其对周围环境造成污染。

Transportation engineering.  Civil engineers working in this specialty build facilities to ensure safe and efficient movement of both people and goods. They specialize in designing and maintaining all types of transportation facilities, highways and streets, mass transit systems, railroads and airfields, ports and harbors. Transportation engineers apply technological knowledge as well as consideration of the economic, political, and social factors in designing each project. They work closely with urban planners, since the quality of the community is directly related to the quality of the transportation system.

交通工程学。从事这一专业领域的土木工程师建造可以确保人和货物安全高效运行的设施。他们专门研究各种类型运输设施的设计和维护,如公路和街道,公共交通系统,铁路和飞机场,港口和海港。交通工程师应用技术知识及考虑经济,政治和社会因素来设计每一个项目。他们的工作和城市规划者十分相似,因为交通运输系统的质量直接关系到社区的质量。

Pipeline engineering. In this branch of civil engineering, engineers build pipelines and related facilities which transport liquids, gases, or solids ranging from coal slurries (mixed coal and water) and semiliquid wastes, to water, oil, and various types of highly combustible and noncombustible gases. The engineers determine pipeline design, the economic and environmental impact of a project on regions it must traverse, the type of materials to be used-steel, concrete, plastic, or combinations of various materials-installation techniques, methods for testing pipeline strength, and controls for maintaining proper pressure and rate of flow of materials being transported. When hazardous materials are being carried, safety is a major consideration as well.

渠道工程学。在土木工程学的这一支链中,土木工程师建造渠道和运送从煤泥浆(混合的煤和水)和半流体废污,到水、石油和多种类型的高度可燃和不可燃的气体中分离出来的液体,气体和固体的相关设备。工程师决定渠道的设计,项目所处地区必须考虑到的经济性和环境因素,以及所使用材料的类型——钢、混凝土、塑料、或多种材料的复合 ——的安装技术,测试渠道强度的方法,和控制所运送流体材料保持适当的压力和流速。当流体中携带危险材料时,安全性因素也需要被考虑。

Construction engineering. Civil engineers in this field oversee the construction of a project from beginning to end. Sometimes called project engineers, they apply both technical and managerial skills, including knowledge of construction methods, planning, organizing, financing, and operating construction projects. They coordinate the activities of virtually everyone engaged in the work: the surveyors; workers who lay out and construct the temporary roads and ramps, excavate for the foundation, build the forms and pour the concrete; and workers who build the steel framework. These engineers also make regular progress reports to the owners of the structure.

建筑工程学。土木工程师在这个领域中从开始到结束监督项目的建筑。他们,有时被称为项目工程师,应用技术和管理技能,包括建筑工艺,规划,组织,财务,和操作项目建设的知识。事实上,他们协调工程中每个人的活动:测量员,布置和建造临时道路和斜坡,开挖基础,支模板和浇注混凝土的工人,以及钢筋工人。这些工程师也向结构的业主提供进度计划报告。

Community and urban planning. Those engaged in this area of civil engineering may plan and develop community within a city, or entire cities. Such planning involves far more than engineering consideration; environmental, social, and economic factors in the use and development of land and natural resources are also key elements. These civil engineers coordinate planning of public works along with private development. They evaluate the kinds of facilities needed, including streets and highways, public transportation systems, airports, port facilities, water-supply and waste water-disposal systems, public buildings, parks, and recreational and other facilities to ensure social and economic as well as environmental well-being.

社区和城市规划。从事土木工程这一方面的工程师可能规划和发展一个城市中的社区,或整个城市。此规划中所包括的远远不仅仅为工程因素,土地的开发使用和自然资源环境的,社会的和经济的因素也是主要的成分。这些土木工程师对公共建设工程的规划和私人建筑的发展进行协调。他们评估所需的设施,包括街道,公路,公共运输系统,机场,港口,给排水和污水处理系统,公共建筑,公园,和娱乐及其他设施以保证社会,经济和环境地协调发展。

Photogrametry, surveying, and mapping. The civil engineers in this specialty precisely measure the Earth’s surface to obtain reliable information for locating and designing engineering projects. This practice often involves high-technology methods such as satellite and aerial surveying, and computer-processing of photographic imagery. Radio signal from satellites, scans by laser and sonic beams, are converted to maps to provide far more accurate measurements for boring tunnels, building highways and dams, plotting flood control and irrigation project, locating subsurface geologic formations that may affect a construction project, and a host of other building uses.

摄影测量,测量学和地图绘制。在这一专业领域的土木工程师精确测量地球表面以获得可靠的信息来定位和设计工程项目。这一 方面包括高工艺学方法,如卫星成相,航拍,和计算机成相。来自人造卫星的无线电信号,通过激光和音波柱扫描被转换为地图,为隧道钻孔,建造高速公路和大坝,绘制洪水控制和灌溉方案,定位可能影响建筑项目的地下岩石构成,以及许多其他建筑用途提供更精准的测量。

Other specialties. Two additional civil engineering specialties that are not entirely within the scope of civil engineering but are essential to the discipline are engineering management and engineering teaching.

其他的专门项目。还有两个并不完全在土木工程范围里面但对训练相当重要的附加的专门项目是工程管理和工程教学。

Engineering management.  Many civil engineers choose careers that eventually lead to management. Others are able to start their careers in management positions. The civil engineer-manager combines technical knowledge with an ability to organize and coordinate worker power, materials, machinery, and money. These engineers may work in government—municipal, county, state, or federal; in the U.S.  Army Corps of Engineers as military or civilian management engineers; or in semiautonomous regional or city authorities or similar organizations. They may also manage private engineering firms ranging in size from a few employees to hundreds.

工程管理。许多土木工程师都选择最终通向管理的职业。其他则能让他们的事业从管理位置开始。土木工程管理者结合技术上的知识和一种组织能力来协调劳动力,材料,机械和钱。这些工程师可能工作在政府——市政、国家、州或联邦;在美国陆军军团作为军队或平民的管理工程师;或在半自治地区,城市主管当局或相似的组织。他们也可能管理规模为从几个到百个雇员的私营工程公司。

Engineering teaching.  The civil engineer who chooses a teaching career usually teaches both graduate and undergraduate students in technical specialties. Many teaching civil engineers engage in basic research that eventually leads to technical innovations in construction materials and methods. Many also serve as consultants on engineering projects, or on technical boards and commissions associated with major projects.

工程教学。通常选择教学事业的土木工程师教授研究生和本科生技术上的专门项目。许多从事教学的土木工程师参与会导致建筑材料和施工方法技术革新的基础研究。多数也担任工程项目或技术领域的顾问,和主要项目的代理。


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